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Hate Crimes:

The term "hate crime" can be used to describe a set of criminal behavior where the motive for the commission of the crime is hostility or demonstrating hostility toward the victim's disability, race, religion, sexual orientation, or transgender identity.

These aspects of a person's identity are known as "protected characteristics". A hate crime can include verbal abuse, intimidation, threats, harassment, assault, bullying, and heinous massacres, as well as damage to property and buildings.

The perpetrator could be a friend, caregiver, or acquaintance who is exploiting his relationship with the victim for financial gain or for any other criminal purpose.
External research and reports provided by academics, governments of countries suffering from hate crimes, and organizations that have an interest in combating this type of crime are benefiting from all of them together help our understanding and awareness of hate crimes, how they work and their impact on victims.

Of the hate crimes that caught the world's attention are two crimes that occurred in Norway on July 22, 2011 in one day, and the difference between the two incidents is only two hours.

The first incident is a car bomb explosion in Oslo, the capital of Norway, killing eight people, wounding 209 others, and 12 people are in very serious condition.

The second incident took place two hours later in a summer camp set up by the Workers Union for Youth, one of the United Nations activities, on Utoya Island in Joskard in Norway, and 77 people were killed in this attack.
The two crimes were carried out by one person named Anders Behring Breivik, a 32-year-old far-right Norwegian, who was arrested and sentenced to 21 years in prison.

Among the hate crimes is the massacre of Speicher, which took place after the capture of the Air Force cadets at Speicher Air Force Base on June 12, 2014 in the city of Tikrit.
2000-2200 students of the Iraqi Air Force were captured and led to the presidential palaces in Tikrit. They were killed there and in other areas by firing bullets and buried some of them alive or thrown into the Tigris River after being shot in the head.

Among the hate crimes due to race and religion is what is known now as the Sinjar massacre. This massacre describes what happened to the Yazidis in the city of Sinjar in the Mosul province (Nineveh).

On the third of August 2014. Armed criminal groups affiliated with ISIS attacked Sinjar, killing an estimated 5,000 people, capturing women, and brutally destroying the city, the reason being hatred because their beliefs contradict the Islamic religion, and their customs and traditions do not fit the customs and traditions of Muslims.

In the history of Iraq, we must mention the massacre of the Faylee Kurd that took place in April 1980 when the Baathist regime led by Saddam Hussein, who was executed due to many hate crimes and racism.
The Baath Party regime led by Ahmed Hassan Al-Baker and his deputy Saddam Hussein deported more than a million Kurdish people outside the borders of Iraq to the Republic of Iran, which borders Iraq specifically, and killed more than 22,000 people because of the regime’s hatred of them under the pretext that they are not Iraqis and of Shiite Kurdish origins. Their beliefs, religious sect and racism contradict the ideas of the president of the regime and his government.

In America, bloody massacres occur from time to time because of hatred, where a person fires shots at a group of people, either in schools, public parks, or markets. Two bloody massacres occurred at the end of this first weekend in Texas and the other in Ohio, killing dozens of people. .

We are all aware of the hate crime that occurred in New Zealand, where a person killed a large group of Muslims while they were performing their prayers in the mosque.

Hate crimes are the assaults on the handicapped, the elderly, homosexuals, veiled and veiled Muslim women in varying degrees, and crime rates differ from one country to another.

To address hate crimes, governments in several countries have begun to put strict laws and legal definitions to curb the increasing violations against victims of hate crimes, and it has become a phenomenon that deserves to be studied and studied in its various aspects and to lay the right foundations to limit its spread.

Dr Dhia Kadhem
PhD Mathematical Operational Research